The formation of ponds is carried out with the function of being the land where aquatic commodities are cultivated. In general, ponds are more often used to cultivate shrimp.

There are several types of shrimp ponds , but people usually use direct ground pools more often. This is mostly done because the ground pool does not require expensive costs.

Although all shrimp  ponds look the same to one another, in fact there are several types of ponds. It is known that there are 4 types of ponds that you can manage, including extensive (traditional), semi-intensive, intensive and super-intensive ponds.

1.Extensive shrimp ponds

Extensive shrimp ponds or traditional ponds are the types of ponds that are most widely used by farmers. The extensive pond method is known to have a low stock density, so it has a low level of productivity. Even so, the level of care carried out will also be easier, so that the risk of shrimp getting disease is also minimal, provided that the shrimp fry being stocked are also disease free.

The stocking density of extensive ponds generally ranges from 5-8 fish / m2, with the yield produced is 300 kg to 2 tons per hectare per year.

2.Semi-intensive shrimp ponds

Semi-intensive shrimp ponds are considered suitable for use in Indonesia, because in addition to the large yields obtained, the impact on the environment is also relatively small. The ideal stocking density in semi-intensive ponds is around 50-80 fish / m2, with yields of 3 to 6 tons per hectare per year.

Because the stocking density is still not too dense, making this semi-intensive pond is quite easy to control, so that water pollution does not occur quickly, provided that it complies with CBIB (Good Fish Cultivation Method) procedures which are socialized by the government of the Republic of Indonesia.

3.Intensive shrimp ponds

Intensive shrimp ponds generally have a fairly high stocking density, which is around 100 – 300 individuals / m2. Intensive ponds usually use direct earthen ponds, but can also use layers such as HDPE plastic geomembranes to reduce soil erosion rates. The depth of the pond pond is also made more than 1 meter, so that the shrimp can move freely, with yields of about 10 to 30 tons per hectare per year.

As a result of the high stocking density, intensive ponds can produce more waste when compared to extensive and semi-intensive ponds, and can cause problems for the surrounding environment due to waste that is not managed properly according to sustainable cultivation procedures.

The waste generated from intensive pond culture comes from chemical reactions from the pile at the bottom of the pond which are harmful such as leftover feed, shrimp dung, and molting residue containing harmful compounds, such as NH3 (ammonia) and H2S (Hydrogen Sulphide). If not treated immediately, these harmful compounds will rise to the surface of the pond and disrupt water quality which will have a significant effect on the health and growth of shrimp.

Water quality control products (water conditioners) are currently starting to be favored by farmers in Indonesia, one of which is the AQUA-Cal + product because of its function to bind toxic compounds to remain at the bottom of ponds, and have active substances that can neutralize the levels of harmful compounds so that the sludge of the cultivation pond bottom odorless and small in quantity. This means that now farmers do not need to routinely do the pond siphon because the active substance from the water conditioner can still function for the next pond cycle.

4.Super intensive ponds

The stocking density in super intensive ponds is increased again, so that it becomes bigger when compared to intensive ponds. The high stocking density allows farmers to get higher yields, which is around 300 – 1,000 individuals / m2, with yields of up to> 100 tonnes per hectare per year.

However, the application is quite expensive. In order to support oxygen intake in the ponds, you need at least 8 units of windmills, 4 units of turbo jets and a blower with a power of 5.5 HP.

The depth of the shrimp pond should also be increased to about 260 cm so that the shrimp is not too crowded. Super intensive ponds are required to have an IPAL (Wastewater Treatment Plant), which is a structure designed to remove biological and chemical wastes from water to allow the water to be used for other activities.

pond liner

Malaysia shrimp pond

Malaysia shrimp pond with 0.7mm hdpe geomembrane liner

If you donot know how to build a shrimp pond, please check our video